Paul Dirac Quote

Causality applies only to a system which is left undisturbed. If a system is small, we cannot observe it without producing a serious disturbance and hence we cannot expect to find any causal connexion between the results of our observations. Causality will still be assumed to apply to undisturbed systems and the equations which will be set up to describe an undisturbed system will be differential equations expressing a causal connexion between conditions at one time and conditions at a later time. These equations will be in close correspondence with the equations of classical mechanics, but they will be connected only indirectly with the results of observations.


I. The Principle of Superposition - 1. The Need for a Quantum Theory - The Principles of Quantum Mechanics (4th ed. 1958)

Picture Quote 1

Causality applies only to a system which is left undisturbed. If a system is small, we cannot observe it without producing a serious disturbance and...

Picture Quote 2

Causality applies only to a system which is left undisturbed. If a system is small, we cannot observe it without producing a serious disturbance and...

Picture Quote 3

Causality applies only to a system which is left undisturbed. If a system is small, we cannot observe it without producing a serious disturbance and...

Picture Quote 4

Causality applies only to a system which is left undisturbed. If a system is small, we cannot observe it without producing a serious disturbance and...